Diabetes mellitus is a disorder wherein there occurs a deficiency in the production of insulin hormone resulting in the increase of blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus type-2 is one such disease relating to high blood glucose due to insulin resistance. This is known to be the most common type of diabetes particularly among older patients. Type 2 diabetes is popularly called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin- dependent diabetes.
- Extreme tiredness
- Increased urine production
- Loss of weight
- Blurred vision
- Skin infections
- Increased hunger
- Excessive thirst
- Poor pace of wound healing
Type 2 diabetes may be caused due to the increase in blood pressure and blood triglyceride levels. Consumption of fatty foods and alcohol intake at a higher level would also result in such disease. Intake of low protein and fiber diet can develop diabetes. It is also observed that there is a close relation between hypertension and diabetes. Obesity and unhealthy food choices and lack of exercise are some of the other reasons. Older people are always at the risk of getting diabetes. Genetic factors are also responsible for type 2 diabetes. In some cases emotional disturbance might cause increase in blood pressure leading to the disease ultimately.
Insulin resistance in type 2 can be seen in conditions like obesity, pregnancy, infections and stress.
The history of the patient to find any of the hereditary aspects of the disease is carefully analyzed at the first stage. Factors like lifestyle, habits and diet are also taken into consideration. Finger stick testing of blood measures the sugar levels in blood. Fasting plasma glucose test helps in testing glucose levels. Hemoglobin A1 C laboratory test measures the control of sugar levels. A thorough check up of blood pressure is said to be a part of the diagnostic process.
The best medication to control diabetes type 2 is oral hypoglycemic drug. Insulin treatment with a syringe of insulin pump and oral medicines decrease the levels of blood sugar. Thiazides medications control high blood pressure. Apart from medications reducing obesity and following a diabetic food plan is also suggested for such disease. Engaging in moderate physical activity helps in reducing overweight. It is better for such patients to avoid smoking and drinking alcohol.
The complications that correspond the diabetic condition include diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma and diabetic ketoacidosis. Long term complications include coronary artery disease, diabetic neuropathy, hypertension, skin infections, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and atherosclerosis. Patients might experience burning, numbness and severe pain in the hands and the feet. Digestive problems might also steadily arise. Dizziness and weakness might occur due to low blood sugar.
Keeping the body weight under control and maintaining a healthy lifestyle might prevent type 2 diabetes. Low alcohol consumption and quit smoking would ideally be suggested as the best preventive measures. For type 2 diabetic patients regular exercise might become crucial. Washing the feet and checking blisters or infection on the feet would be some of the methods of prevention.
Cinnamon helps to control blood glucose in case of type 2 diabetes. Zinc helps in the storage of insulin in the body. Food products which contains zinc are split peas, egg yolk, beef liver, lima beans, almonds, walnuts and buckwheat. Aloe vera gel helps diabetic patients.
However, a regular check up of blood glucose level and taking right doses of medicine of insulin can reduce its severity. Reduction of weight is the key to manage diabetes.